Parvovirus B19 infection: Summary Parvovirus B19 infection may cause slapped cheek syndrome (erythema infectiosum or fifth disease), commonly in school-age children. It usually causes a bright red... More: … Your doctor and midwife will refer you to a Specialist Fetal Medicine Clinic for further follow-up. Adults might also have joint pain and stiffness. The procedure is not undertaken at Southmead Hospital, you will be referred to St. Michael’s Hospital, Fetal Medicine Unit for this. Slapped cheek syndrome is caused by a virus (parvovirus B19). Exposure to infection with Parvovirus B19 may have occurred earlier than you think. In humans the P antigen (also known as globoside) is the cellular receptor for parvovirus B19 virus that causes erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) in children. These can be signs of severe anaemia and you might be sent to hospital for a blood transfusion. It may take a few weeks for the rash to completely clear and during that time it may seem to worsen until it fades away entirely. The rash may extend down to the chest, arms, stomach and thighs.  It has a lace-like appearance and can sometimes itch. Bocavirus are members of the Parvoviridae virus family that are small (20 nm), non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded DNA. Most women who have parvovirus in pregnancy will have healthy babies. In most cases, your baby would be fine, though it’s possible for the virus to cause serious complications. To reduce the risk of spreading the virus: wash your hands often with warm water and soap. Slapped cheek syndrome, also known as fifth disease, is caused by a virus called parvovirus B19. Human parvovirus is present in the nasal mucus, sputum, or saliva. [Accessed: 15.11.2017], RCOG: Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/slapped-cheek-syndrome/ Infection with parvovirus B19 is most common in children between the ages of 4 and 11. If this treatment option is required, the procedure, the benefits, risks and likely outcome will be discussed with you fully by the person carrying out the treatment. In some cases, however, infection is associated with sufficiently severe complications that treatment is indicated and may be lifesaving. You currently have Parvovirus B19 infection. Learn about adenovirus infections. Symptoms tend to be flu-like with a rash of the cheeks- which may spread elsewhere. Parvovirus B19 infects only humans. Classically, primary PVB19 infection, which occurs most commonly in children, manifests as erythema infectiosum [3]. It is estimated that around 50% of young men and women have antibodies against B19V, determined via serology tests[1]. [Accessed: 5.12.2017], https://cks.nice.org.uk/parvovirus-b19-infection#!backgroundsub:1 About half of adults are immune to parvovirus infection, most likely because of a previous, unnoticed childhood infection. A person cannot catch parvovirus B19 from a dog or cat. It is important to note that many people (up to 30%) with Parvovirus B19 have no symptoms at all. Antibodies are cells that your immune system produces in response to an infection. Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a single-stranded DNA virus of the family Parvoviridae and genus Erythrovirus. https://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/1112.aspx?categoryid=54 Slapped cheek syndrome (also called fifth disease or parvovirus B19) is a viral infection that's most common in children, although it can affect people of any age. The virus can be spread through airborne droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Slapped cheek disease is sometimes called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum. You have not had Parvovirus B19 infection before and are at risk of infection. Fifthdisease.org (2017) What is Fifth Disease The blood sample may also be tested for rubella (German measles) in the same way it looks at your parvovirus status if you have no record of previous rubella testing or MMR immunisation. After 20 weeks of pregnancy the risk of the baby developing severe anaemia is much lower but investigations are undertaken in all cases. This treatment is usually successful in treating anaemia but the procedure itself carries a small chance of miscarriage. It may also be spread through blood or contaminated blood products. >>Read more about Parvovirus B19 on NHS UK. The health of your baby can be monitored to check for signs of anaemia. [Accessed: 5.12.2017], NICE: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Pregnant women who have been infected with parvovirus can spread the virus to the fetus through the placenta. If you have think you have been in contact with Human Parvovirus B19 infection or if you have a rash you should urgently report this to your midwife or doctor as you will need to have a blood test. Rarer symptoms may include swollen glands, red eyes, sore throat, and a rash that might look like blisters or bruises. If you think you've been exposed to fifth disease, tell your practitioner, who will monitor your baby. Menu The exact number of Parvovirus B19 infections in the UK is not known as the virus does not always show symptoms, and the diagnosis can only be confirmed by blood test. Parvovirus infection has also been known as fifth disease because, historically, it was one of five common childhood illnesses characterized by a rash.In most children, parvovirus infection is mild and requires little treatment. It's rarer in adults, but can be more serious. People who are at risk of severe parvovirus complications might benefit from blood tests that can help determine if they're immune to parvovirus or if they've recently become infected. You can only spread it to other people before the rash appears. Look at other rashes in babies and children. Tell your midwife or a GP if you're pregnant or have a weakened immune system and have been near someone with slapped cheek syndrome. The Immunisation and diagnosis unit (IDU)provides diagnostic and reference services for parvovirus B19. The body rash also fades within 2 weeks, but sometimes comes and goes for up to a month, especially if you're exercising, hot, anxious or stressed. There is a five – ten per cent risk of fetal loss if women develop this infection in the second trimester. The level of anaemia and the length of time the baby might have anaemia will be variable and unpredictable. In some cases, especially in adult women or older teenagers, joint swelling or pain may occur. Close menu. Bocavirus is found usually in infants and children who are hospitalized with pneumonia or diarrheal symptoms. The rash is often present on the face in children and looks like a ‘slapped cheek’ appearance. To contact your GP surgery: Find out about using the NHS during coronavirus. The virus spreads to other people, surfaces or objects by coughing or sneezing near them. [Accessed: 15.11.2017], NHS (2015) Slapped Cheek Syndrome. Infection during this time can sometimes lead to serious complications such as fetal anaemia and sometimes fetal loss (miscarriage or stillbirth). Slapped cheek syndrome is caused by a virus (parvovirus B19). It is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. (Accessed 05/12/2017), https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/slapped-cheek-syndrome/, https://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/1112.aspx?categoryid=54, https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/safety-alert-3/, https://cks.nice.org.uk/parvovirus-b19-infection#!scenario:2, https://cks.nice.org.uk/parvovirus-b19-infection#!backgroundsub:1. https://www.fifthdisease.org/ A human variant of the parvovirus does exist but its transmission is only possible from one human to another just like the canine parvovirus is only transmittable between animals in the canine family. Parvovirus infection: Infection with one of a family of small single-stranded DNA viruses. About 20-30% of cases do not present any symptoms. Less than 50% have a rash. You should report any rashes that occur in pregnancy or any further contact with known infection as you may need to have another blood test. Human parvovirus B19 infections are common. https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/550792/view, https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/618192/view. More about Parvovirus. School teachers, childcare workers and mothers of young children are particularly likely to be exposed to this virus as it is commonest amongst younger school age children, but everyone can be exposed to it. It's hard to avoid spreading slapped cheek syndrome because most people do not know they have it until they get the rash. This can continue for many weeks, even after the other symptoms have gone. If the results show that you have the infection, you will be referred to a Specialist Fetal Medicine Clinic where you will be offered frequent ultrasound scans to check your baby’s health. Outbreaks of the infection are common in preschool and young school aged children. Page last reviewed: 12 January 2018 It is an infection caused by the parvovirus B19 virus. Parvovirus infection is a common and highly contagious childhood ailment — sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the distinctive face rash that develops. You do not usually need to see a GP for slapped cheek syndrome. The Human Parvovirus B19 is not the same Parvovirus that vets may be concerned about in pets, especially dogs, and it cannot be passed from humans to animals or vice versa. Complications of parvovirus B19 infection are rare in healthy people. Parvovirus B19 most commonly causes fifth disease, a mild rash illness that usually affects children. Adults can get infected with parvovirus B19, too.Other much less common symptoms of parvovirus B19 infection include painful or swollen joints (polyarthropathy syndrome), which is more common in adults, and severe anemia (a condition in which the body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells). Infection with Parvovirus B19 can occur at any age, but is most common in children aged six – ten years. use tissues to trap germs when you cough or sneeze. Parvovirus is an extremely common infection. This would usually happen three to five weeks after the onset of maternal infection, but can be later. It is usually transmitted by coughing and sneezing (respiratory droplets). Seasonal outbreaks of Parvovirus B19 occur every three – four years in the UK, mainly in late winter and early spring. Hydrops fetalis and neonatal death from human parvovirus B19: an unusual complication. The first sign of slapped cheek syndrome is usually feeling unwell for a few days. Acute Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection is the major cause of transient red cell aplasia (TRCA) and acute anaemia in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). In adults, primary PVB19 infection may manifest as arthropathy [4], and infection during pregnancy can lead to hydrops fetalis [5]. There's a small chance you could pass fifth disease (parvovirus B19) on to your baby during pregnancy. Your midwife or doctor should contact you with the result as soon as they receive it. The Human Parvovirus B19 is not the same Parvovirus that vets may be concerned about in pets, especially dogs, and it cannot be passed from humans to animals or vice versa. Parvovirus is usually diagnosed through a blood test for antibodies to the virus. It's still important to get help from a GP if you need it. If you do not hear from your midwife or doctor by seven working days after the test it is strongly advised that you contact them or the surgery, health centre or the Antenatal Clinic of the hospital stated on your maternity yellow book. Slapped cheek syndrome (fifth disease) is common in children and should clear up on its own within 3 weeks. The rash is the result of your immune system reacting after the infection has passed.