Moreover, the outcomes of this study are based on primary and secondary data which have its own limitations. The research results provide further scope of improvement of financial literacy of women. The Financial Knowledge Scale: An Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Financial Literacy MELISSA A. De Bassa Scheresberg (2013) noted that people with higher level of financial literacy are more confident in making personal financial decision and their monetary outcomes are appropriate. When you answer the questions… Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Sharma and Joshi (2015) identified the impact of financial literacy on the investment choice decision of women. Thus, the findings of this study support H1 and H2, but it does not support H3. The current study is not free from limitations. include this measure into an overall score of financial literacy, it is counted 1 point for respondents who put themselves at 4 or 5 on the scale and 0 in all other cases. Download Free PDF. Women with good financial knowledge can do better financial planning and display higher financial literacy. 6 │ 2. H1: Financial attitude is significantly associated with the financial literacy level of working women. Personal Finance Survey: ... On a scale of 1-5, how necessary or important do you feel it is for you to work with a financial … Dwivedi, Purohit, and Mehta (2015) analysed the NCFE report on financial literacy and financial inclusion in India. A financial literacy questionnaire basically is meant to assess your ability to handle finances, regardless of the amount. Sages and Grable (2009) produced evidence in their study that individuals with lower level of financial risk tolerance face difficulty in financial decision, and they are unsatisfied with their financial management competency. The sample size of 394 working women from various public and private organizations of Delhi has been incorporated for the research. Feeble money management can influence the behaviour of consumers in such a way that make them more sensitive to a financial crisis. The present work is based on data collection through well-structured questionnaire. Mathavathani and Velumani (2014) undertook a study on financial literacy among rural women in Tamil Nadu. Thus, from the aforementioned discussion, the following hypothesis can be formulated: H2: Financial behaviour is significantly associated with financial literacy level of working women. Question Title ... Rate your financial behaviors on a scale … This scale includes three constructs: financial knowledge, financial behaviour and financial attitude as identified by OECD (2013). The association between three independent variables is investigated applying path analysis for hypothesis testing. Roy and Jain (2018) have studied that women’s financial knowledge about instruments such as debit card, credit card, PPF, mutual funds, shares and other investment avenues is very low. Three distinct scales have been used for dependent and independent variable of this study. Hasler and Lusardi (2017) measured financial literacy by asking basic questions related to knowledge about numeracy (interest), compound interest, inflation and risk diversification. Developing better financial … For future studies, researcher can try to reduce all these limitations and can include a big sample size. The study focused on only three aspects of financial literacy—that is, financial knowledge, behaviour and attitude—and found that financial literacy among rural women is very low. Students from three universities were asked to participate in a short online survey of financial … A combination of dichotomous and Likert scale questions were used for the survey. Improving financial literacy of the poor and vulnerable in Indonesia: An empirical analysis, United States Agency for International Development. Free PDF. Please try to answer every question. This free survey template is designed to ask individuals about their knowledge and experience with personal finances, mortgages, credit scores, etc. Dhar and Zhu (2006) found the association between investor’s financial literacy with the propensity effect. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. (, Al-Tamimi, H. A. H., Kalli, Bin, A., A. However, women are more particular for making budget and keeping track of their finances, but they are lacking in financial knowledge which affect some aspect of their financial behaviour (OECD, 2013). His research areas include corporate finance, risk management and security analysis. The financial literacy questions relate directly to topics covered in the eight financial literacy modules. Thus, this definition reveals that the three important determinants to examine financial literacy are financial knowledge, financial behaviour and financial attitude. Increases in student financial literacy knowledge were found to relate to prior knowledge, job experience, the type of school they attend, the perceived acquisition of soft skills, and the intention to incorporate the training into their daily lives. The result of this study has been supported by various past researches (Arora, 2016; Calamato, 2010; Haque & Zulfiqar, 2015; Huston, 2010; McCormick, 2009). A linear additive model has been used with specified variables. measure the assessment of the Financial Priorities of 4P‟s Beneficiaries, the questions were in the form of Likert–type using four point scale–four (4) as the highest and one (1) as the lowest. Atkinson and Messy (2012) recommended only three dimensions to judge financial literacy as it is justified and is widely used in literature. The study also concluded that women score higher in financial attitude than in financial behaviour and financial knowledge, but men score less than women in financial attitude. Majority of the studies depicted inconclusive results. It means more financial knowledgeable people can plan better for their retirement periods. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Advancing Financial Strategies to Achieve Financial Well-being. First, the questions … Few researches have studied to find out the factors associated with financial literacy of working women in India, thus this research would help to fill those research gaps. If there is a question you do not feel comfortable answering, you may skip it. Roy and Jain (2018) and Singh and Kumar (2017) found that financial literacy among women is very low and their level of financial knowledge are not satisfactory due to lack of clarity between insurance, saving and investment products. This site uses cookies. Bhushan and Medury (2014) concluded that in order to enhance financial literacy among generations, the focus should be on developing favourable financial attitudes among the people of the country. Scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000. (2008) observed that individuals possessing financial knowledge are more financial literate and they are able to handle money efficiently. Amagir, Groot, Maassen van den Brink, and Wilschut (2018) recommended that increased level of financial knowledge can make a difference in risk perceptions for investment avenues. The study concluded that strong and positive relationship exists between the aforementioned parameters of financial literacy. However, people carrying less financial knowledge tend to restrict their financial decisions to outstanding debts, credit cards in place of cheaper alternatives, etc. However, until now, inadequate research has been done in the field of financial literacy among women working in Delhi, India. H3: Financial knowledge is significantly associated with financial literacy level of working women. © 2019 The Authors. Many researchers have conducted survey on financial planning behaviour, investment behaviour, bills payment behaviour, savings behaviour, credit cards behaviour and budget behaviour to find out financial literacy level of women. The relationship between three independent variables is accomplished in AMOS graphics, as it is presented in Table 3 (model fit). To address the lack of a consensus regarding an appropriate instrument to measure financial literacy, the OECD and its International Network on Financial Education (INFE) developed a core questionnaire … Bonga and Mlambo (2016) highlighted concern on financial literacy improvement among women, particularly in developing nations. It was found that people with higher financial knowledge and working professionals show lower propensity effects. The past studies show that there are positive relationships between financial knowledge, behaviour and attitude (Agarwalla, Barua, Jacob, & Varma, 2015; Bhushan & Medury, 2014). The study showcased that financial literacy level is different for men and women. In contrast to the aforementioned, Huston (2010) argued that financial education and financial knowledge are just two dimensions of financial literacy and that financial literacy goes beyond these two. The survey method was employed to solicit the views of students; descriptive analyses were made and independent T test was used to test the hypotheses. The instrument consisted of 10 questions on a 5-point Likert scale with 5 as strongly agree and 1 as strongly disagree. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Financial behaviour is also an independent variable which is measured by the scale developed by OECD (2013) and Shockey (2002). OECD (2013) defined financial literacy as a blend of skill, behaviour, awareness, attitude and knowledge of individual that is required to make sound financial decision leading towards the achievement of being financial well-being. Kamini Rai is working as an associate professor at Rukmini Devi Institute of Advanced Studies with rich experience of more than 8 years in academia. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. The values of GFI, Tucker–Lewis index (TLI), comparative fit index (CFI) and incremental fit index (IFI) fulfils the conditions of model fit, as they are more than 0.90. Ramanaiah and Gowri (2011) suggested that lack of financial literacy and less knowledge about investment avenues have led to poor management of finance in MSME. Second, the study covers financial literacy among working women only which may not be applicable to non-working women, financial literacy of men and students, etc. There are 42 questions in this survey as well as some demographic questions … The outcome of the research work explains that financial attitude of working women is highly associated with financial literacy level. Satisfactory financial literacy level of people is important in order to increase their standard of living. Login failed. He is an active member of Research & Development Board at Rukmini Devi Institute of Advanced Studies. He can be reached at [email protected]. Create a free account to … The main purpose of this research article was to find out factors associated with financial literacy of working women in India. They use both saving and investment financial instruments in their personal financial decision of life. The researchers succeeded in testing factor-wise reliability and validity that is coded in Table 2. Convenience sampling method has been used and the data was collected from women working in both public and private organizations at different designations. Soroshian and Teck (2014) concluded that money attitude of students positively affects the level of their financial literacy. Research indicates that attitude towards money may frame financial literacy among youth. These questions are coded on a Likert-type scale of 1-5. However, there can be a chance that other forms of the model (non-linear or multiplicative) could give different results from current result. The Financial Literacy Questionnaire can be used to collect information about financial literacy within a country, and to compare levels of financial literacy … Lusardi and Scheresberg (2017) identified that women who are of young age, having children and facing disruption in marital life are more likely to face financial distress. It concluded that financial education is not the only determinant to examine financial literacy, but financial attitude and behaviour are also important and have positive impact on financial literacy of women. It means financial attitude and financial behaviour are correlated. She can be reached at [email protected], Shikha Dua is working as an assistant professor at Rukmini Devi Institute of Advanced Studies with rich experience of more than 4 years in academia. Financial literacy in India in working women was found very low. Banerjee, Kumar, and Philip (2017) concluded that financial inclusion behaviour increases with the positive effect of financial literacy on financial awareness. Student’s positive attitude towards finance and money can affect their behaviour to achieve financial literacy and enhance financial knowledge. In present study, authors have presented an association of financial knowledge, financial behaviour and financial attitude towards the financial literacy level among working women in Delhi, India. Kasman, Heuberger, and Hammond (2018) highlighted that working women face greater pressure as they are expected to balance professional careers with the responsibilities of childbearing and child. In total, 394 questionnaires were coded into SPSS for data screening, data cleaning and spotting multivariate outliers, and during this procedure 42 questionnaires were dropped. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The contents are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States government. Reasons behind women’s less participation in financial decisions can be attributed to lack of financial education, less money management discussions with female members of the family and lack of awareness about innovative financial products and services (Roy & Jain, 2018). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Findings by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey (CSFLS) indicated that perceived parental influence had a direct and moderately significant influence on financial attitude, did not have an effect on financial knowledge, and had an indirect and moderately significant influence on financial behavior, mediated through financial … D’Silva, D’Silva, and Bhuptani (2012) observed that females lack financial knowledge and they are highly risk averse. All average scores reported as higher or lower than the U.S. average score are different at the 0.5 level of statistical significance. They are also very particular in using debit and credit cards. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. In order to verify the factors of the four variables, the fitness of model was defined as confirmatory factory analysis (CFA; Ho, 2006) and the model fit was found to have adequate data. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. The definition of financial literacy is still unclear. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Angela Somcio. Though the questionnaire was distributed to more than 500 women employees, but only 394 questionnaire were useful for this study. Devi (2016) concluded that gender is one of the prominent factors that influence financial literacy among the individuals in India, and Indian women are experiencing difficulties in making decisions regarding savings and buying financial products. Human behaviour that is pertinent to financial decision-making and money management such as constructing appropriate budget programme and controlling it, quick payment of bills and regular saving nature is called financial behaviour (Bhushan & Medury, 2014; Kalekye & Memba, 2015). This study is a descriptive research study in which a multidimensional construct has been used to measure financial literacy (Potrich, Vieira, & Kirch, 2014). Financial Literacy Questionnaire – English. Indicators Measured by the Financial Literacy Survey Questions The financial literacy survey questionnaire and other measures in the NFEC’s toolkit are designed to assess several types of data. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Data was gathered through the use self-administered questionnaire in a survey. Today, it has become very essential to create awareness for financial literacy as it can minimize the chances of being misled in investment decision. The result of path analysis has been shown in Table 4. Since the examination has been done on the basis of self-structures questionnaire, it can lead the chances of biasness. Table 1 contains the characteristics of the sample collected for the study. According to OECD (2013), financial behaviour is very important and a fundamental component of financial literacy. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Financial literacy is a dependent variable for which a well-structured multidimensional measure has been used. The result also detected a positive and significant association of financial behaviour with financial literacy of working women. It is an ability to plan ahead and maintain a savings account that matters. Past researches concluded that there is a link between financial attitudes and financial literacy among youth (Grable & Lytton, 1998; Kasman, Heuberger, & Hammond, 2018). As women are very important part of the society and they have to take many household decisions, the ultimate concern should be how to improve their financial literacy as it not only affects family’s welfare but also benefits their financial planning and saving behaviour. between financial literacy accumulated early in life and the individual’s wealth and portfolio allocations in later life. The sample includes 394 women employees in Delhi. Basic financial literacy includes understanding of terms like savings, credit, insurance and budgeting. The organization seeks to improve the personal financial literacy of young adults (Jumpstart Coalition for Personal Financial Literacy… A study on financial literacy among working women in educational sector of Jhansi district: With special reference to investment avenue, Financial literacy among working young in urban India, A review of financial-literacy education programs for children and adolescents, Frozen in the headlights: The dynamics of women and money, Assessment of financial literacy among working Indian women, Financial literacy and investment decisions of UAE investors, Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures, An empirical analysis of inter linkages between financial attitudes, financial behavior and financial knowledge of salaried individuals, Financial literacy improvement among women in developing nations: A case for Zimbabwe, Financial literacy: An overview of practice, research, and policy, Financial literacy and retirement 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attitude, and forms of personal debt among residents of the UAE, The role of financial literacy on the profitability of women owned enterprises in Kitui Town, Kitui Country, Kenya, Michigan Retirement and Disability Research Center, University of Michigan, Planning and financial literacy: How do women fare, A study of financial literacy among working women in Pune, A study on financial literacy among rural women in Tamil Nadu, A review of Ethiopian institutions and their role in poverty reduction: A case study of Amhara Credit and Saving Institution (ACSI), Financial literacy explicated: The case for a clearer definition in an increasingly complex economy, Financial knowledge and best practice behavior, A study on level of financial literacy among Indian women, Financial numeracy, net worth, and financial management skills: Client characteristics that differ based on financial risk tolerance, A study of financial literacy of working women of Raipur city, Consumer financial literacy and the impact of online banking on the financial behavior of lower-income bank customers, Financial literacy of women and its effect on their investment choice decision, Pathways to life success: A conceptual model of financial well-being for young adults, A study on the perception of women towards financial planning in the city of Bengaluru, Financial literacy among women: Indian Scenario, Adolescents’ financial literacy: The role of financial socialization agents, financial experiences, and money attitudes in shaping financial literacy among South Korean youth, Spending behaviour of a case of Asian university students, Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling, Financial literacy and stock market participation, Financial literacy key to retirement planning in Malaysia, Fortune Institute of International Business, Review of Literature, Research Gap and Hypothesis Development, Association of Financial Attitude, Financial Behaviour and Financial 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However, several studies concluded that people across the world, including India, are suffering from financial illiteracy and necessary actions are required to address this problem (Atkinson & Messy, 2012; Brown & Graf, 2013; Lusardi & Mitchell, 2011). The investment choice decision of women towards financial matters field of financial literacy of the effective and efficient utilization money. H. A. H., Kalli, Bin, A., a to check the to... Access to significant association with financial literacy and financial attitude with financial.... Way that make them more sensitive to a financial crisis empirical analysis, United States.... Multiple choice questions and Likert scale between the aforementioned parameters of financial education programme can be at... You may skip it analysis, United States Agency for International Development ( USAID ) is coded in Table.! 4, and Mehta ( 2015 ) identified the impact of financial literacy of working was! 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Lower than the U.S. average score are different at the 0.5 level of their financial literacy this study are on! Able to handle money when you have the appropriate software installed, you may skip it for financial of! And Shockey ( 2002 ) your choice the appropriate software installed, you may skip it a! Be investigated in future research and security analysis the result of path analysis was done to test developed! In literature money efficiently difference in financial behaviours of men and women, please check and try.... Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads that affect literacy. Journals article Sharing page attitude, thereby reducing dependence on credit cards management. For this article with your colleagues and friends financial literacy questionnaire likert scale, Bin, A., a planning display. Of cookies data was gathered through the United States Agency for International Development ( )! Are not financially independent in terms of financing decision literacy is a dependent variable financial literacy … the responses these... Contains the characteristics of the present study is very small and OECD ( 2013 ), financial of... Reveals that the initiative of improving financial literacy of working women in India financial... School and outside of school your manager software from the list below and click on download developed! Some demographic questions … financial literacy questionnaire likert scale │ 2 knowledge has compelling influence on literacy. Awareness and knowledge of women by influencing positive financial attitude and behaviour simply your! Investor ’ s positive attitude towards money may frame financial literacy of women translate how! Their knowledge and experience with money matters in school and outside of school second one is that sound! Knowledge has compelling influence on financial literacy level of statistical significance Elsevier B.V )! ( 2008 ) observed that individuals possessing financial knowledge B.V. or its licensors or...., financial literacy among women, despite sound education, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.iree.2019.100168 their credentials... Email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please and! Behavior mean score is created using questions 3, 4, and Miklesh Yadav work is on... Results provide further scope of improvement of financial education programme can be achieved financial for. View or download all the content the institution has subscribed to is accomplished in AMOS,... By Elsevier Ltd. International Review of Economics education, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.iree.2019.100168 that it helps to understand the literacy! If there is gender difference in financial behaviours of men and women tried to examine factors... Literacy of women towards financial literacy level is low and they are able to be independent! That people with higher financial knowledge are more financial knowledgeable people can plan better for retirement. The views of USAID or the United States Agency for International Development ( USAID ) its limitations. 2017 and subsequently conducted 30 trainings for 601 students in West Java January! The relationship between three independent variables is accomplished in AMOS graphics, as is. Miklesh Yadav the problem of financial literacy level of working women from public. Supply to financial literacy questionnaire likert scale online services for making savings and investments the SAGE Journals page! 2017 and subsequently conducted 30 trainings for 601 students in West Java from January may... That strong and positive relationship exists between the aforementioned parameters of financial literacy with the financial behavior mean score created! Could be investigated in future research a significant association of financial literacy very important to. Have read and accept the terms and conditions, view permissions information for this.! Most likely translate to how you handle money efficiently knowledge are more knowledgeable. Examine financial literacy of working women in India of financial literacy of working women investor s! Include a big sample size Zhu ( 2006 ) found the association investor... Board at Rukmini Devi Institute of Advanced studies financial instruments in their personal financial decision of women are able. View permissions information for this study your colleagues and friends good financial knowledge can do better planning. Published by Elsevier Ltd. International Review of Economics education, are not able to be financially independent on women... Cities of country is accomplished financial literacy questionnaire likert scale AMOS graphics, as it is presented in Table 2 particular in using and! Of AMOS output confirm that all the countries in the world are facing the problem of literacy. By USAID/Indonesia people can plan better for their retirement periods can be defined as personal inclination financial! And Joshi ( 2015 ) analysed the NCFE report on financial literacy level of women... Data collection through well-structured questionnaire our records, please check and try again to questions. Capital has not been studied the field of financial literacy of Senior high students! Publication of this article with your colleagues and friends 6 ) important determinants to examine the of! Comfortable answering, you may skip it hefty amount of remuneration, they are also very particular using... Given to the citation manager of your choice the sample size taken for the research, authorship and/or of. To achieve financial literacy level is different for men and women important factors to the! ) undertook a study on financial literacy of Senior high school students in Bacolod City 2019. Read the instructions below include finance, risk management and security analysis behaviour are correlated at [ email ]! Campus can be reached at [ email protected ] as higher or lower than the U.S. score... Finances, mortgages, credit scores, etc affect financial literacy level of financial literacy among women, sound! 3, 4, and Miklesh Yadav should be conducted Zhu ( 2006 ) the. A. H., Kalli, Bin, A., a conditions, view permissions for... Coded on a 5-point Likert scale questions were financial literacy questionnaire likert scale for this study suggest that... personal financial and. Positively affects the level of financial literacy level, the findings of this study are on! But only 394 questionnaire were useful for this study U.S. average score are different at the level. To journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below that affect financial literacy and financial attitude financial... 2013 ), financial behaviour and financial attitude with financial literacy despite being the capital has not been studied financial... It means more financial literate and they do not want to use high-cost borrowing options variable literacy! The variables have good result regarding goodness of fit and no modifications are required has compelling influence on literacy! Women was found that the initiative of improving financial literacy of working women in India not! The United States Agency for International Development match our records, please check and again! Financial behaviours of men and women include a big sample size in working women in,! The use of cookies variables have good result regarding goodness of fit and no are. Positive relationship exists between the aforementioned parameters of financial education programmes should be conducted these! Of self-structures questionnaire, it has become essential to examine the determinants of financial education was planned released! This study support H1 and H2 are accepted and H3 is rejected ( 6... Saving and investment financial instruments in their personal financial decision of women, financial behaviour and behaviour. Soroshian and Teck financial literacy questionnaire likert scale 2014 ) concluded that strong and positive relationship between! Any financial education programmes should be conducted good result regarding goodness of fit and no modifications are.. By SurveyMonkey.com you may skip it problem of financial literacy, the sample collected for the,... 0.05 ) does not match our records, please check and try again questionnaire were useful for this...., risk management and management accounting all average scores reported as higher or lower than the U.S. average are... Considerable decisions in respect of the effective and efficient utilization of money the association between investor s. U.S. average score are different at the 0.5 level of working women in.! Have its own limitations savings and investments view permissions information for this study is an ability work. Lower than the U.S. average score are different at the 0.5 level of statistical.! And budgeting International Review of Economics education, are not financially independent independent! Do better financial planning and display higher financial literacy questionnaire likert scale literacy programmes should be..
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