It takes about 3 hours to climb the 7,498-foot peak following the Path of Moses, a stairway of nearly 4,000 steps. Midian was located … Instead of speaking from the Children of Israel perspective, Horeb: The Mountain of God speaks from Moses perspective. His main argument was that, visiting Sinai in March, he considered that the vicinity did not present sufficient water for Israel (Appendix B, 303-18). Exodus 3:19 I know that the king of Egypt won't give you permission to go, no, not by a mighty hand. In the other books of the Pentateuch, Sinai is the usual name, though Horeb also occurs (Exodus 3:1; Exodus 17:6; Exodus 33:6), applying both to the "Mount of God" and to the desert of Rephidim, some 20 miles to the Northwest.2. But, for Arabs not encumbered with families and herds, this distance could still be covered by an average march of 39 miles daily, on riding camels, or even, if necessary, on foot.3. Exodus 4:9 It will happen, if they will not believe even these two signs, neither listen to your voice, that you shall take of the water of the river, and pour it on the dry land. [This is also near the … In the other books of the Pentateuch, Sinai is the usual name, though Horeb also occurs (Exodus 3:1; Exodus 17:6; Exodus 33:6), applying both to the "Mount of God" and to the desert of Rephidim, some 20 miles to the Northwest.2. There is also a well on the lower slope of Jebel Musa itself, where the ascent begins.7. In those days, God was in Heaven and mountains were a way to get close to the heavens. I have seldom found it necessary to carry water when making a mountain excursion, and the intermediate neighborhood of Jebel Musa would, I think, bear comparison with many mountain districts in Scotland with regard to its supply of water. But, for Arabs not encumbered with families and herds, this distance could still be covered by an average march of 39 miles daily, on riding camels, or even, if necessary, on foot.3. And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed." Deuteronomy 1:27 and you murmured in your tents, and said, "Because Yahweh hated us, he has brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us. 1. Mr. Greene supposed Elim (Exodus 15:27) to be Elath (Deuteronomy 2:8), now `Ailah at the head of the Gulf of `Akabah; and that Sinai therefore was some unknown mountain in Midian. It’s the same place! Over time, the exact location of Mount Horeb was forgotten. This conversation took place at the foot of the "mountain of God." 3:1; 1 Kings 19:8). The ancient library at Jebel Musa was the source of Traditional Site:The indications of position, in various passages of the Pentateuch, favor the identification with the traditional site, which has become generally accepted by all those explorers who have carefully considered the subject, though two other theories may need notice. A mountain usually identified with Mt. In 17 passages the same desert and mountain are called "Horeb," or "the waste." Exodus 3:10 Come now therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh, that you may bring forth my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt. Such storms occur as a rule in the Sinaitic desert only in December and January, but thunderstorms are not unknown in Palestine even in May.5. In the other books of the Pentateuch, Sinai is the usual name, though Horeb also occurs ( Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 17:6 ; Exodus 33:6 ), applying both to the "Mount of God" and to the desert of Rephidim, some 20 miles to the Northwest. Sinai: Ex. There must be a cleft somewhere near the top of the mountain. Horeb: "Now Moses was pasturing the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. The mountain, today called Jebel Musa (“the mountain of Moses”), has an elevation of 7,497 feet above sea level. The desert of Sin (Exodus 16:1; Exodus 17:1 Numbers 33:11 f) lay between Sinai and the Gulf of Suez, and may have been named from the "glare" of its white chalk. Christ. ), in the same reign, says that Rephidim was then called Pharan, and (distinguishing Horeb from Sinai, as Eusebius also does) he places it "about 6 miles from Pharan," and "near Sinai." There is also a well on the lower slope of Jebel Musa itself, where the ascent begins.7. Such storms occur as a rule in the Sinaitic desert only in December and January, but thunderstorms are not unknown in Palestine even in May.5. ), in the same reign, says that Rephidim was then called Pharan, and (distinguishing Horeb from Sinai, as Eusebius also does) he places it "about 6 miles from Pharan," and "near Sinai." ", Exodus 3:12 He said, "Certainly I will be with you. Horeb is not recorded to have been visited by any of the Hebrews after Moses, except by Elijah (1 Kings 19:8) in a time of storm. But at Sinai "the glory of Yahweh was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel" (Exodus 24:17); and, indeed, the glory of the Lord still dyes the crags of Jebel Musa (the "mountain of Moses") with fiery red, reflected from its red granite and pink gneiss rocks, long after the shadows have fallen on the plain beneath. Deuteronomy 5:2 Yahweh our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. From there, Elijah traveled 40 days and 40 nights to … Northeast of this is Jebel Musa (7, 370 ft.), which, though less high, is more conspicuous because of the open plain called er Rachah ("the wide") to its Northwest. Mr. Greene supposed Elim (Exodus 15:27) to be Elath (Deuteronomy 2:8), now `Ailah at the head of the Gulf of `Akabah; and that Sinai therefore was some unknown mountain in Midian. Between the breathtaking views and the important revelations, mountains became symbols of being close to God. Exodus 17:6 Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock in Horeb. Deuteronomy 1:44 The Amorites, who lived in that hill country, came out against you, and chased you, as bees do, and beat you down in Seir, even to Hormah. The Twofold Signifcance of Mount Horeb, the Mountain of God, (part 2) 9th March 2018 . These various considerations may suffice to show that the tradition as to Horeb is at least as old as the time of Josephus, and that it agrees with all the indications given in the Old Testament.6. ... and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb. 2 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed." These heights were accurately determined by Royal Engineer surveyors in 1868 (Sir C. Wilson, Ordnance Survey of Sinai); and, though it is impossible to say which of the peaks Moses ascended, yet they are all much higher than any mountains in the Sinaitic desert, or in Midian. si'-ni, si'-na-i (cinay; Codex Alexandrinus Sina, Codex Vaticanus Seina):1. Sinai is not that difficult to ascertain. But at Sinai "the glory of Yahweh was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel" (Exodus 24:17); and, indeed, the glory of the Lord still dyes the crags of Jebel Musa (the "mountain of Moses") with fiery red, reflected from its red granite and pink gneiss rocks, long after the shadows have fallen on the plain beneath. In fact, it appears from what the Bible states, both Sinai and Horeb are the Mountain of God—not to mention Mount Zion . Sinai is mentioned, as a desert and a mountain, in 35 passages of the Old Testament. Moses fled to the land of Midian (or "empty land"), which lay East of the Sinaitic peninsula (Numbers 22:4, 7; Numbers 25; Numbers 25 31), and when he wandered with his flocks to Horeb (Exodus 3:1) he is said to have reached the west side of the desert. The traditional site of Mount Sinai is in the south central part of the Sinai Peninsula. Sinai's Location in Midian. However, this same theme frames the entire Bible. In the Bible, Mount Sinai (Hebrew: הַר סִינַי‬ ‎, Har Sinai) is the mountain at which the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God. The token or sign was that the people in bondage would be brought to His Mountain, Mount Horeb, Exodus 3:1. In another note (Deuteronomy 1:2) we read that the distance was "eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir unto Kadesh-barnea" or Petra (see WANDERINGS OF ISRAEL), the distance being about 145 miles, or 14 miles of daily march, though Israel-with its flocks, women and children-made 16 marches between these points. Deuteronomy 1:6 "Yahweh our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying, You have lived long enough in this mountain: Deuteronomy 1:7 turn, and take your journey, and go to the hill country of the Amorites, and to all the places near there, in the Arabah, in the hill country, and in the lowland, and in the South, and by the seashore, the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates. The location of the Mount Sinai described in the Bible remains disputed. Lepsius' Theory:Lepsius, it is true (Letters from Egypt, 1842-44), denying the existence of any unbroken tradition, and relying on his understanding of Cosmas, supposed Sinai to be the Jebel Serbal above mentioned, which lies immediately South of Wady Feiran. Greene's Theory:Another theory, put forward by Mr. Baker Greene (The Hebrew Migration from Egypt), though accepted by Dr. Sayce (Higher Cricitism, 1894, 268), appears likewise to be entirely untenable. In 17 passages the same desert and mountain are called "Horeb," or "the waste." Blackened rock at the summit of Mt. It is 2285 metres high. Description of Jebel Musu:Jebel Musa has two main tops, that to the Southeast being crowned by a chapel. It begins with the Garden of Eden in Genesis and ends with New Jerusalem in Revelation. In another note (Deuteronomy 1:2) we read that the distance was "eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir unto Kadesh-barnea" or Petra (see WANDERINGS OF ISRAEL), the distance being about 145 miles, or 14 miles of daily march, though Israel-with its flocks, women and children-made 16 marches between these points. North of the Convent is the lower top of Jebel edition Deir ("mountain of the monastery"). 1 Kings 8:9 There was nothing in the ark save the two tables of stone which Moses put there at Horeb, when Yahweh made a covenant with the children of Israel, when they came out of the land of Egypt. In addition to these streams there are numerous wells and springs, affording excellent water throughout the whole of the granitie district. In Genesis the elevated location of the Garden of Eden is indicated by the fact that a single river flows out of Eden, before dividing to become four rivers. The name Horeb is spelled חורב only in Exodus 33:6. "Sinai" and "Horeb" are generally considered to refer to the same place by scholars. The Name:The name comes probably from a root meaning "to shine," which occurs in Syriac, and which in Babylonian is found in the name sinu for "the moon." I have proposed the sacred mount is in the vicinity of Jebel Serabit el Khadim in the southern Sinai. It lies beside Mount Sinai beyond Arabia in the Desert (ibid. Horeb (a.k.a. where is horeb the mountain of god located? Deuteronomy 1:30 Yahweh your God who goes before you, he will fight for you, according to all that he did for you in Egypt before your eyes, Deuteronomy 1:40 But as for you, turn, and take your journey into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea.". In Exodus 3:1 Moses led his flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb. The desert of Sin (Exodus 16:1; Exodus 17:1 Numbers 33:11 f) lay between Sinai and the Gulf of Suez, and may have been named from the "glare" of its white chalk. 3:1 (noun) Dictionary ! This plain is about 4 miles long and has a width of over a mile, so that it forms, as Dr. E. Robinson (Biblical Researches, 1838, I, 89) seems to have been the first to note, a natural camp at the foot of the mountain, large enough for the probable numbers (see EXODUS, 3) of Israel.4. What does horeb mean? Purchase Horeb: The Mountain of God to find out... Everyone love the story of Moses, especially The Ten Commandments. The Token. These heights were accurately determined by Royal Engineer surveyors in 1868 (Sir C. Wilson, Ordnance Survey of Sinai); and, though it is impossible to say which of the peaks Moses ascended, yet they are all much higher than any mountains in the Sinaitic desert, or in Midian. Even those who are non religious find themselves in awe of the experiences on the tops of modern mountains. "This is important, as Israel encamped near Sinai from the end of May till April of the next year. Deuteronomy 18:16 This is according to all that you desired of Yahweh your God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, "Let me not hear again the voice of Yahweh my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I not die.". Mount Horeb and Mount Sinai are both said to be the mountain of God. Unfortunately, these descriptions have generally been misunderstood or ignored due to confusion about the “Arabia” term. Evidently in his time Sinai was supposed to be one of the peaks of the great granitic block called et Tur-a term applying to any lofty mountain. Horeb is not recorded to have been visited by any of the Hebrews after Moses, except by Elijah (1 Kings 19:8) in a time of storm. In favor of the traditional site it may also be observed that clouds suddenly formed, or lasting for days (Exodus 24:15 f), are apt to cap very lofty mountains. You shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink." Evidently in his time Sinai was supposed to be one of the peaks of the great granitic block called et Tur-a term applying to any lofty mountain. Mountains became a place to experience God, and they still are. Horeb comes from a Hebrew term meaning “desert.” Most of the events that the book of Exodus describes as happening at Mount Sinai are located at Mount Horeb in the book of Deuteronomy. North of the Convent is the lower top of Jebel edition Deir ("mountain of the monastery"). Why is the mountain called the mountain of God? In AD 530, St. Catherine’s Monastery was constructed at the northern foot of Mount Sinai. 5:10) which is reflected in God giving the two tablets of the testimony to Moses on Mount Sinai (Ex. Even Jebel Serbal, 20 miles West of Sinai-a ridge with many crags, running 3 miles in length-is at its highest only 6,730 ft. above the sea. Identification with Jebel Musa:These distances will not, however, allow of our placing Sinai farther East than Jebel Musa. Elijah traveled “a day’s journey into the wilderness” from Beersheba in Judea, which is believed to be the archaeological site of Tel Sheva in southern Israel. This block has its highest peak in Jebel Katarin (so named from a legend of Catherine of Egypt), rising 8,550 ft. above the sea. Deuteronomy 29:1 These are the words of the covenant which Yahweh commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant which he made with them in Horeb. Horeb is called “the mountain of God,” (Ex. Lepsius' Theory:Lepsius, it is true (Letters from Egypt, 1842-44), denying the existence of any unbroken tradition, and relying on his understanding of Cosmas, supposed Sinai to be the Jebel Serbal above mentioned, which lies immediately South of Wady Feiran. At the peak are a Christian chapel and an Islamic mosque. If we go the the Bible, the location of Mt. This term is chiefly used in Deuteronomy, though Sinai also occurs (Deuteronomy 33:2). Sinai, and the Mountain of God) is the mountain where Moses fasts for two times forty days back to back, as he receives the Law (Exodus 3:1). ", Exodus 3:11 Moses said to God, "Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt? Patristic Evidence:A constant tradition fixing the site is traceable back to the 4th century A.D. Eusebius and Jerome (Onomasticon, under the word "Choreb") place Horeb near Paran, which in their time was placed (Onomasticon, under the word "Raphidim") in Wady Feiran. The water which you take out of the river will become blood on the dry land.". What is the details of His journey? Moses fled to the land of Midian (or "empty land"), which lay East of the Sinaitic peninsula (Numbers 22:4, 7; Numbers 25; Numbers 25 31), and when he wandered with his flocks to Horeb (Exodus 3:1) he is said to have reached the west side of the desert. This term is chiefly used in Deuteronomy, though Sinai also occurs (Deuteronomy 33:2). Four streams of running water are found there: one in Wady Leja; a second in Wady et Tl'ah which waters a succession of gardens extending more than 3 miles in length, and forms pools in which I have often had a swim; a third stream rises to the North of the watershed of the plain of er Rachah and runs West into Wady et Tl'ah; and a fourth, is formed by the drainage from the mountains of Umm Alawy, to the East of Wady Sebaiyeh and finds its way into that valley by a narrow ravine opposite Jebel edition Deir. This is the mountain where God spoke to Moses. The Hebrews reached Sinai about the end of May (Exodus 19:1) and, on the 3rd day, "there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount" (Exodus 19:16). Because of instances within the Bible that appear contradictory, people dismiss the book as being historically incorrect, when, in fact, it is so accurate, people have been able to locate … Traditional Site:The indications of position, in various passages of the Pentateuch, favor the identification with the traditional site, which has become generally accepted by all those explorers who have carefully considered the subject, though two other theories may need notice. It is where God made a covenant with his people at Horeb (Deut. It is referred to as “the mountain of God” in Exodus 3:1, and named by Moses “Massah, and Meribah” (Exodus 17:6), where the rock was smited in order to create water for the troups. This is the location where Moses saw God and received the Ten Commandments from God (Exodus 33-34). Sinai in the book of Exodus? "This is important, as Israel encamped near Sinai from the end of May till April of the next year. However, Eusebius’ definition of “Arabia” is easily explained using the Renaissance-era map in Figure 1. where is horeb the mountain of god located? Identification with Jebel Musa:These distances will not, however, allow of our placing Sinai farther East than Jebel Musa. Described in Exodus at the Mountain of G-d, Horeb is also known as the Mountain of Yhvh. 3. Jebel Madhbah, overlooking the ruins of Petra in southern Jordan. Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel. Exodus 3:1 Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the back of the wilderness, and came to God's mountain, to Horeb.. Exodus 3:7 Yahweh said, "I have surely seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt, and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters, for I know their sorrows. A Tennis Club serving the Community. R. Conder, Mount Horeb (Mount Sinai) and surrounding area. There is adequate water supply, appropriate amounts of pasturage, and a wide open plain there that align with … Sinai again is described as being distant from Egypt "three days' journey into the wilderness" (Exodus 5:3), the actual route being 117 miles, which Israel accomplished in 10 journeys. This block has its highest peak in Jebel Katarin (so named from a legend of Catherine of Egypt), rising 8,550 ft. above the sea. I have seldom found it necessary to carry water when making a mountain excursion, and the intermediate neighborhood of Jebel Musa would, I think, bear comparison with many mountain districts in Scotland with regard to its supply of water. Description of Jebel Musu:Jebel Musa has two main tops, that to the Southeast being crowned by a chapel. The concept of God living on a holy mountain is a significant theme in the Old Testament. Exodus 3:16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and tell them,'Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, "I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt; Exodus 3:17 and I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, to a land flowing with milk and honey. But in this case Israel would in 4 days (see Exodus 15:22, 23, 27) have traveled a distance of 200 miles to reach Elim, which cannot but be regarded as quite impossible for the Hebrews when accompanied by women, children, flocks and herds.C. In addition to these streams there are numerous wells and springs, affording excellent water throughout the whole of the granitie district. Deuteronomy 1:19 We traveled from Horeb, and went through all that great and terrible wilderness which you saw, by the way to the hill country of the Amorites, as Yahweh our God commanded us; and we came to Kadesh Barnea. The Scriptures describe the time when Moses ascended to the top of the mountain to receive the Ten Commandments. Deuteronomy 1:2 It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh Barnea. Malachi 4:4 "Remember the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded to him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordinances. The Name:The name comes probably from a root meaning "to shine," which occurs in Syriac, and which in Babylonian is found in the name sinu for "the moon." In the northwestern corner of today's Saudi Arabia, sits a mountain that perfectly fits the Biblical description of Mount Sinai. altitude but because of the sharpness of its precipices: nay, indeed, it cannot be looked at without pain of the eyes, and besides this it was terrible and inaccessible, on account of the rumor that passed about, that God dwelt there" (Ant., II, xii, 1; III, v, 1). His new life as a shepherd, brought him to the “mountain of God, even Horeb” (Exodus 3:1) It was here, at the burning bush, that God told Moses, “When you have brought forth the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God upon this mountain” (Exodus 3:12) 2. This token or sign was to identify those who were sent by God, as Moses was sent to deliver God’s people. Deuteronomy 4:15 Take therefore good heed to yourselves; for you saw no manner of form on the day that Yahweh spoke to you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire. 1 Kings 19:8 He arose, and ate and drank, and went in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights to Horeb the Mount of God. These various considerations may suffice to show that the tradition as to Horeb is at least as old as the time of Josephus, and that it agrees with all the indications given in the Old Testament.6. altitude but because of the sharpness of its precipices: nay, indeed, it cannot be looked at without pain of the eyes, and besides this it was terrible and inaccessible, on account of the rumor that passed about, that God dwelt there" (Ant., II, xii, 1; III, v, 1). Sinai is mentioned, as a desert and a mountain, in 35 passages of the Old Testament. Greene's Theory:Another theory, put forward by Mr. Baker Greene (The Hebrew Migration from Egypt), though accepted by Dr. Sayce (Higher Cricitism, 1894, 268), appears likewise to be entirely untenable. Deuteronomy 4:10 the day that you stood before Yahweh your God in Horeb, when Yahweh said to me, "Assemble me the people, and I will make them hear my words, that they may learn to fear me all the days that they live on the earth, and that they may teach their children.". But in this case Israel would in 4 days (see Exodus 15:22, 23, 27) have traveled a distance of 200 miles to reach Elim, which cannot but be regarded as quite impossible for the Hebrews when accompanied by women, children, flocks and herds.C. The other, divided by gorges into three precipitous crags, has the Convent to its North, and is called Ras-es-Cafcafeh, or "the willow top." Exodus 3:7 Yahweh said, "I have surely seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt, and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters, for I know their sorrows. "', Exodus 3:18 They will listen to your voice, and you shall come, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall tell him,'Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Horeb is where the Israelites made the golden calf (Psalm 106:19) and we know that they did this at Mount Sinai (Ex.32:8; 34:2). Later Elijah the Tishbite also spends forty days fasting on Horeb (1 Kings 19:8), after which he has his famous conversation with God in the cave (1 Kings 19:9-18).. 95). Deuteronomy 9:8 Also in Horeb you provoked Yahweh to wrath, and Yahweh was angry with you to destroy you. 31:18). Cosmas (Topogr. Menu. If we go to the Bible, the location of Mt. Christ. The other, divided by gorges into three precipitous crags, has the Convent to its North, and is called Ras-es-Cafcafeh, or "the willow top." Though its location is somewhat debated, most Christian scholars believe it to be one of the peaks in the Holy Mountain Peaks of Mount Jabal Musa, Mount Catherine, and Mount Ras es-Safsafeh in the southern part of the Sinai Peninsula. There must be a plateau partway up the mountain’s slopes, in which Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders could all comfortably fit (Exodus 24). Sinai is not that difficult to ascertain. The old explanation, "clayey," is inappropriate to any place in the Sinaitic desert, though it might apply to Sin (Ezekiel 30:15, 16) or Pelusium; even there, however, the applicability is doubtful. “This study combines the southern geographical placement of Yahweh’s sacred mountain in Midian with biblical descriptions of the theophany at Sinai-Horeb—descriptions which have prompted scholars to interpret the events at the ‘mountain of God’ as volcanic in nature. There is also no other district in the Peninsula which affords such excellent pasturage. It is to the east of the Israeli city today named Beer Sheba. The Hebrews reached Sinai about the end of May (Exodus 19:1) and, on the 3rd day, "there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount" (Exodus 19:16). The highest tops in the Tih desert to the North are not much over 4,000 ft. Those in Midian, East of Elath, rise only to 4,200 ft. Phillips noted the sacred mount was called Horeb and Sinai and the "Mountain of God," which, in Hebrew would be Har Elohim, -im being a plural form, which some would render as "Gods" rather than God, Hence, the "Mountain of the Gods." After the Exodus, God appeared before the Israelites on the summit of Mount Sinai. He went on to define Horeb as– the mountain of God in the land of Madiam. si'-ni, si'-na-i (cinay; Codex Alexandrinus Sina, Codex Vaticanus Seina):1. The old explanation, "clayey," is inappropriate to any place in the Sinaitic desert, though it might apply to Sin (Ezekiel 30:15, 16) or Pelusium; even there, however, the applicability is doubtful. But, on this point, it is sufficient to give the opinion of the late F. W. Holland, based on the experience of four visits, in 1861, 1865, 1867-68.He says (Recovery of Jerusalem, 524):"With regard to water-supply there is no other spot in the whole Peninsula which is nearly so well supplied as the neighborhood of Jebel Musa. In 17 passages the same desert and mountain are called "Horeb," or "the waste." Mount Horeb (Sinai) "The Mountain of God" Is there another name for Mt. Lofty mountains, in all parts of the world, have always been sacred and regarded as the mysterious abode of God; and Josephus says that Sinai is "the highest of all the mountains thereabout," and again is "the highest of all the mountains that are in that country, and is not only very difficult to be ascended by men, on account of its vast. Highly detailed maps made by the British in the 1930s reveal … Four streams of running water are found there: one in Wady Leja; a second in Wady et Tl'ah which waters a succession of gardens extending more than 3 miles in length, and forms pools in which I have often had a swim; a third stream rises to the North of the watershed of the plain of er Rachah and runs West into Wady et Tl'ah; and a fourth, is formed by the drainage from the mountains of Umm Alawy, to the East of Wady Sebaiyeh and finds its way into that valley by a narrow ravine opposite Jebel edition Deir. Horeb, Midian, and they still are Sinai are both said to be mountain... 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